Bunions: What you should know

Bunions: What you should know

Bunions are a sign of a developing bone condition. At the base of the big toe joint, they are visible as a bony bulge.

Bunions are known medically as hallux valgus. They result from a structural issue with the foot and toe bones, typically the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. The feet no longer align correctly as a result.

The big toe's bone is typically affected by bunions, which cause it to bend toward the second toe rather than straight ahead.

The big toe rubs against the toe next to it. As a result, the joint protrudes.

Bunions' symptoms frequently affect adults, but they can also affect teenagers.
They may happen as a result of a condition involving the foot's bones naturally.

Some individuals with hallux valgus never experience symptoms. Although they may not directly cause bunions, shoes that squeeze the toes together can raise the chance of symptoms.

Instead of the big toe, bunions can instead develop close to the base of the little toe. These are referred to as "tailor's bunions" or "bunionettes."

In this research, we'll examine bunions' causes, signs, and symptoms, as well as possible remedies.


Many medical specialists think that people inherit the type of bone structure that leads to bunions.

The likelihood of developing bunions is increased by additional factors:

  • Overpronation, which is a low arch or uneven weight distribution-bearing in the foot and tendon, which causes instability in the toe joint.
  • Hypermobility, which is the big toe bone moving more than usual due to foot injury.
  • Forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Diseases like polio affect both the muscles and the nerves.

A further risk factor is improper foot development prior to delivery.

Some claim that wearing high heels or narrow shoes encourages the development of bunions. They do not directly induce bunion growth, but they may worsen pre-existing bunions or contribute to the development of bunions in individuals who are genetically prone to the problem.

According to a 2014 systematic study, over half of all adults and 2% of children under the age of 10 are thought to have this illness.
Younger girls, between the ages of 10 and 15, are more prone than older girls to develop adolescent bunions. Typically, this condition runs in families.
Younger individuals with bunions can typically move their toe up and down. A bunion is more prone to cause movement restrictions in adulthood.

A bulge at the base of the big toe is the primary sign of a bunion. They might also develop at the base of the little toe. When this happens, a doctor will identify a "tailor's bunion" or bunionette.

Other bunions signs and symptoms could include:

  1. Pain.
  2. Numbness.
  3. A burning feeling.
  4. Swelling of the affected toe's joint.
  5. A thickening of the skin near the base of the affected toe.
  6. Redness and a lump at the base of the affected toe's affected foot's stiffened skin
  7. Calluses or corns.
  8. Restricted movement in the affected toe.

Long periods of standing or wearing high heels and small shoes may make the symptoms worse.
Small bumps develop into bunions. But as time passes, they worsen, creating discomfort and making walking challenging.

Health problems

Among the issues that bunions can cause are:

  1. Bursitis, or fluid-filled sac swelling filled cushions that cushion the bones, tendons, and muscles.
  2. Hammertoe is condition in which aberrant joint bending causes discomfort and pressure.
  3. Metatarsalgia, often known as calluses and swelling in the ball of the foot
  4. Pain.
  5. Calluses.
  6. Having trouble walking.
  7. Rheumatoid arthritis.
  8. Reduced toe mobility.

One option to stop some of these issues from occurring is to stay away from shoes that are uncomfortable for the feet.


Here are some photos of bunions as well as some of the issues they can cause.


Usually, a bunion may be observed and examined to determine a diagnosis.

The presence of bunions can also be determined by an X-ray and physical examination by a medical professional. The severity of the bunion will be shown by an X-ray, which will also help determine the course of treatment.

Traditional remedies

Changes in lifestyle that can help with bunions include:

  1. Properly sized shoes: pressure can be relieved by wearing shoes with enough room inside for the toes.
  2. Correct measurements: a reputable shoe store will measure your feet and offer suggestions for the best types of footwear.
  3. Shoe inserts: also referred to as orthotics, inserts ease toe pressure. Online retailers offer orthotics for sale.
  4. Toe padding, tape, or splinting can help to offer support and lessen discomfort.
  5. Avoiding activities that make pain worse includes staying up for extended periods of time and participating in contact sports.
  6. Ice: Putting ice on the injured region can help it feel better and less swollen.


Medication and surgery are the two major ways to properly treat bunions.


Pain and swelling can be relieved with medication.

  • Painkillers: Ibuprofen, for instance, helps lessen both pain and edema. They are sold without a prescription.
  • Injections of cortisone: These can reduce swelling, especially in the pads that are filled with fluid and serve as the bones' cushioning. A doctor will tell you more about these.


Some individuals with bunions can require surgery.
Several different surgical techniques are available for bunions.

Surgery might be appropriate for those who:

  1. A deformity severe enough that the toe may cross over another toe.
  2. Cannot bend or straighten a toe due to stiffness.
  3. Experience pain and irritation that does not improve with alternative therapies.

Younger adults with bunions rarely have bunion surgery.
A full recovery from surgery can take up to six months. It could be required to visit your doctor frequently.

The goals of surgery include pain relief, MTP joint realignment, and correction of any abnormalities that are contributing to the issue.

Tendon and ligament restoration

The toe is lengthened and any weak joint tissues are cut in this procedure. Repair of ligaments and tendons frequently occurs together with osteotomies.


The joint will be realigned with this restorative surgery. To fix the bone, doctors utilize pins, screws, or plates.


It is done in order to get rid of the swollen joint surface.
To keep the joint together while it's healing, the surgeon will then insert screws, wires, or plates. People with severe bunions, arthritis, or those who have undergone unsuccessful bunion surgery typically benefit from this technique.


The lump on the toe joint is removed by the surgeon. This procedure is frequently done in conjunction with an osteotomy.
Exostectomy typically does not address the bunion's underlying problem.

Arthroplasty resection

In order to provide more room between the toe bones, the damaged section of the toe joint is removed during this treatment. This method is reserved for:

  • older individuals with bunions.
  • individuals whose bunion surgery did not fix the issue.
  • those whose severe arthritis prevents them from undergoing arthrodesis.

Doctors rarely suggest this surgical treatment.


Bunions can be avoided by donning well-fitting shoes with a large toe box. Avoid wearing high heels and pointed-toed shoes.

Additionally, people should refrain from wearing shoes that push, squeeze, or irritate their toes and feet.

In conclusion

The prognosis of a bunion varies from person to person.

While some people experience issues that progress over time, others who have the underlying abnormality do not. It frequently happens in both feet.